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This activity contains 20 questions.
During a conservation-of-mass problem, Tom can mentally reverse the steps of the task in which the clay ball was smashed. This example demonstrates that Tom is capable of:
Most school-age children pass Piagets class inclusion problem. This indicates that they:
are aware of classification hierarchies.
can focus on several aspects of a problem rather than centering on just one
can order items along a quantitative dimension.
have the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse them.
Sabrina is able to mentally represent her school and describe the space to others. Her mental representation of her school is known as a:
Nine-year-old Albert easily solves Piagets transitive inference problem with sticks. However, Albert has difficulty solving the following problem: Jim is taller than Frank, and Frank is taller than Joe. Who is the tallest? Piaget would attribute Alberts failure on the latter task to:
Follow-up research on concrete operational thought suggests that the forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks:
progress more quickly in non-Western societies.
develop at the same rate all over the world.
emerge spontaneously as children interact with the environment
are heavily influenced by cultural conditions.
According to Cases neo-Piagetian theory, as children get older:
thought becomes increasingly concrete.
cognitive schemes demand more attention.
cognitive schemes becomes increasingly deliberate.
working memory space is freed up.
Daves drawings show both the features of objects and the relationships among objects. According to Case, Daves drawing demonstrates that :
he is capable of cognitive inhibition.
he is in the formal operational stage.
he understands transitive inference.
his central conceptual structures coordinated multiple dimensions.
Cognitive inhibition refers to the:
failure to produce a mental strategy when it could be helpful.
ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli.
process of continuously monitoring toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
ability to think out a sequence of acts and allocate attention accordingly to reach a goal.
A production deficiency refers to the:
failure to benefit from using a mental strategy.
use of an inappropriate mental strategy.
inability to execute a mental strategy effectively.
failure to use an already learned mental strategy
Which of the following is supported by research on memory strategies in middle childhood?
Elaboration is a late developing memory strategy.
Children rarely experiment with strategies when faced with a challenging problem.
Rehearsal is the most effective and widely used memory strategy.
Organization is usually an inefficient strategy.
Schneider and Bjorklunds study of child soccer experts versus soccer novices demonstrated that compared to novices, expert children are more likely to:
rehearse the test items during encoding.
retrieve meaningful material from long-term memory.
apply organizational strategies during retrieval.
engage in reconstructive processing during storage.
Cross-cultural research demonstrates that :
the more developed the memory strategies, the more competent the information-processing system.
Western children get so much practice with memory strategies that they do not refine other techniques that rely on cues readily available in everyday life
children from Western cultures always show better memory performance than those in non-Western cultures.
nonschooled children benefit greatly from instruction in memory strategies.
Cognitive self-regulation is
the process of monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
deliberate mental activities that are used to store and retain information
the ability to resist interference from internal and external distracting stimuli.
the gradual mastery of logical concepts.
Educators who advocate a whole-language approach argue that
reading instruction should focus on coaching in phonics.
from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form.
children should learn the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds before being given reading material.
young children should be given simplified text materials to facilitate beginning reading.
Research on math instruction demonstrates that __________ is essential for mastering complex skills.
teaching by rote
retrieving answers automatically
experience with problem solving and evaluating solution techniques
drill in computational skills
In Sternbergs triarchic theory of intelligence, __________ refers to information-processing skills.
Kinship studies :
do not reveal the processes through which genes and experiences influence intelligence as children develop.
demonstrate convincingly that heredity is largely responsible for individual, ethnic, and SES variations in intelligence.
reveal that the effects of poverty severely depress the intelligence of ethnic minority children.
underestimate genetic influences and overestimate environmental factors.
Which of the following is believed to contribute to IQ test bias against certain ethnic minority groups?
Compared to white children, ethnic minority children have less prior exposure to specific information resembling IQ test content.
Ethnic minority children often grow up in object-oriented rather than people-oriented homes.
Compared to white parents, ethnic minority parents do not foster in their children complex verbal skills such as storytelling.
Ethnic minority children are less concerned with pleasing their teachers than are white children.
introduces purposeful teaching to ascertain what the child can accomplish with social support.
is more effective in predicting grades than are traditional IQ tests.
presents challenges that are easier than those faced in traditional, static assessments.
often underestimates the IQs of ethnic minority children.
Children of bilingual parents who teach them both languages in infancy and early childhood :
have trouble distinguishing the sounds of each language.
attain language milestones at a slower rate than their monolingual agemates.
often confuse the two language systems.
usually attain proficiency in both languages.
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