The basic format for a book includes the following elements:
1. Author. Use the author's full name: last name first, followed by a comma, and then the first name and any middle name or initial. Omit any title or degree attached to the author's name, such as Dr. or PhD. End the name with a period and one space.
2. Title. Give the full title, including any subtitle. Underline the title unless your instructor specifically calls for italics. Capitalize all important words, separate the main title and the subtitle with a colon and one space, and end the title with a period and one space. For citing a part of a book, such as an essay or poem, see model 18.
3. Publication information. You can usually find this information on the book's title page or on the back of the title page.
When citing a book that has no page numbers, add the abbreviation "N. pag." at the end of the entry. The abbreviation will explain why you don't cite page numbers in your in-text citations of the work.
Other information besides that listed above usually falls either between the author's name and the title or between the title and the publication information, as specified in the following models.
Give the authors' names in the order provided on the title page. Reverse the first and last names of the first author only, not of any other authors. Separate two authors' names with a comma and "and"; separate three authors' names with commas and with "and" before the third name.
You may, but need not, give all authors' names if the work has more than three authors. If you choose not to give all names, provide the name of the first author only, and follow the name with a comma and the abbreviation "et al." (for the Latin et alii, meaning "and others").
Give the author's name only in the first entry. For the second and any subsequent works by the same author, substitute three hyphens for the author's name, followed by a period. (If you are citing two or more works by the same editor, editors, or translator, follow the hyphens with a comma and "ed.," "eds.," or "trans." as appropriate. See models 5, 6, and 7.) Note that the three hyphens stand for exactly the same name or names. If the second Gardner source were by Gardner and somebody else, both names would have to be given in full.
Place an entry or entries using three hyphens immediately after the entry that names the author. Within the set of entries by the same author, arrange the sources alphabetically by the first main word of the title, as in the Gardner examples (Arts, then Quest).
Handle editors' names like authors' names (models 1-3), but add a comma and the abbreviation "ed." (one editor) or "eds." (two or more editors) after the last editor's name.
When citing the work of the author, give his or her name first, and give the editor's name after the title, preceded by "Ed." (singular only, meaning "Edited by"). When citing the work of the editor, use model 5 for a book with an editor, and give the author's name after the title preceded by "By": Miller, Donald L., ed. The City in History. By Lewis Mumford.
When citing the work of the author, give his or her name first, and give the translator's name after the title, preceded by "Trans." ("Translated by"). When citing the work of the translator, give his or her name first, followed by a comma and "trans."; then follow the title with "By" and the author's name: Ciardi, John, trans. The Inferno. By Dante Alighieri. When a book you cite by author has a translator and an editor, give the translator's and editor's names in the order used on the book's title page. For a translated selection from an edited book, see model 18.
List the name of the corporation, institution, or other body as author.
List an anonymous book by its full title. Alphabetize the book by the title's first main word (here Dorling), omitting A, An, or The.
When citing a standard version of the Bible (first example), do not underline the title or the name of the version, and you need not provide publication information. For an edition of the Bible (second example), underline the title and give full publication information.
For any edition after the first, place the edition number after the title. (If an editor's name follows the title, place the edition number after the name. See model 18.) Use the appropriate designation for editions that are named or dated rather than numberedfor instance, "Rev. ed." for "Revised edition."
Republished books include paperbound editions of books originally released in hard bindings and books reissued under new titles. Place the original date of publication (but not the place of publication or the publisher's name) after the title, and then provide the full publication information for the source you are using. If the book was originally published under a different title, add this title at the end of the entry and move the original publication date to follow the titlefor example, Rpt. of Thomas Hardy: A Life. 1941.
When a book's title contains another book title (as here: The Name of the Rose), do not underline the second title. When a book's title contains a quotation or the title of a work normally placed in quotation marks, keep the quotation marks and underline both titles: Critical Response to Henry James's "Beast in the Jungle." (Note that the underlining extends under the closing quotation mark.)
If you use two or more volumes of a multivolume work, give the work's total number of volumes before the publication information ("8 vols." in the first example). Your text citation will indicate which volume you are citing. If you use only one volume, give that volume number before the publication information ("Vol. 5" in the second example). You may add the total number of volumes to the end of the entry ("8 vols." in the second example). If you cite a multivolume work published over a period of years, give the inclusive years as the publication date: for instance, Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1978-90.
Place the name of the series (not quoted or underlined) just before the publication information. Abbreviate common words such as modern and series. Add any series number after the series title.
Whether in or after the title of the conference, supply information about who sponsored the conference, when it was held, and who published the proceedings. Treat a particular presentation at the conference like a selection from an anthology (model 18).
Cite an entire anthology only when citing the work of the editor or editors or when your instructor permits cross-referencing like that shown in model 19. Give the name of the editor or editors (followed by "ed." or "eds.") and then the title of the anthology.
The essentials of this listing are these: author of selection; title of selection (in quotation marks); title of anthology (underlined); editors' names preceded by "Ed." (meaning "Edited by"); publication information for the anthology; and inclusive page numbers for the selection (without the abbreviation "pp."). In addition, this source requires a translator for the selection and an edition number for the anthology. If you wish, you may also supply the original date of publication for the work you are citing, after its title. See model 12. If the work you cite comes from a collection of works by one author and with no editor, use the following form:
If the work you cite is a scholarly article that was previously printed elsewhere, provide the complete information for the earlier publication of the piece, followed by "Rpt. in" ("Reprinted in") and the information for the source in which you found the piece:
When you are citing more than one selection from the same source, your instructor may allow you to avoid repetition by giving the source in full (as in the Kennedy and Gioia entry) and then simply cross-referencing it in entries for the works you used. Thus, instead of full information for the Chopin and Paz works, give Kennedy and Gioia and the appropriate pages in that book. Note that each entry appears in its proper alphabetical place among other works cited.
An introduction, foreword, or afterword is often written by someone other than the book's author. When citing such a piece, give its name without quotation marks or underlining. (But if the piece has a title of its own, provide it, in quotation marks, between the name of the author and the name of the piece.) Follow the title of the book with its author's name preceded by "By." Give the inclusive page numbers of the part you cite. (In the preceding example, the small Roman numerals indicate that the cited work is in the front matter of the book, before page 1.)
When the author of a preface or introduction is the same as the author of the book, give only the last name after the title:
List an article in a reference work by its title (second example) unless the article is signed (first example). For works with entries arranged alphabetically, you need not include volume or page numbers. For well-known works like those listed on the previous page, you may also omit the editors' names and all publication information except any edition number and the year of publication. For works that are not well known, give full publication information: