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habeas corpus
The writ of habeas corpus requires arresting authorities to explain the grounds for a person's imprisonment or detention before a court of law.

Hakluyt, Richard
Hakluyt was a proponent of English colonization in the New World. He tried in his essay, "Discourse on Western Planting," to convince Queen Elizabeth I to aid the establishment of colonies, arguing that they would have important strategic and economic benefits for England.

Half-Breeds
The Half-Breeds were a more reform minded and circumspect faction of the Republican party than their major rivals, the Stalwarts. Both factions were mainly interested in patronage.

Half-Way Covenant
When it was formally adopted in 1662 the Half-Way Covenant provided limited membership in the Puritan church. "Half-Way" members and their children could be baptized, but were not originally allowed to take communion or have a voice in church affairs. Without the Half-Way Covenant, third-generation children would remain unbaptized until their parents experienced conversion.

Hamilton, Alexander
Hamilton was the first Secretary of Treasury. He was the leading spokesman for strong national government, and organized the Federalist party.

Hanna, Marcus Alonzo
Mark Hanna was President McKinley's campaign manager in the election of 1896-a kingmaker. He was a skillful organizer and money raiser who masterminded McKinley's "front porch campaign." After McKinley was elected, Hanna was elected to the Senate where he became a spokesman for business interests.

Harlem Renaissance
Harlem, New York, in the 1920s was the largest black city in the world and the cultural capital of African Americans. A multitude of talented black artists and writers found an audience, both black and white, for their artistic and literary expressions of black pride and other themes.

Harper's
"Harper's" magazine was one of only a handful of serious magazines published in America to the mid-1880s. It was staid in tone and politically conservative, publishing articles on current events, poetry, fiction, and history. Aimed at the upper middle class, it was influential, but had no mass circulation.

Harpers Ferry raid
In 1859, abolitionist John Brown and his followers raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He planned to arm local slaves, lead a slave rebellion, and establish a black republic. Instead, he was captured, tried, and executed for treason.

Harrison Act
This 1914 law prohibited the dispensing and use of narcotics ofr other than medicinal purposes.

Harrison, Benjamin
Harrison, a noted waver of the "bloody shirt" accusing Democrats of treason for the Civil War, was elected president in 1888. Like other late nineteenth-century presidents, he usually deferred to Congress for leadership on the issues.

Hartford Convention
In December 1814, a group of Federalists met in Hartford, Connecticut, to protest the War of 1812 and propose several constitutional amendments, including changes to protect the commercial interests of New England. These antiwar Federalists were discredited when the United States achieved an honorable peace in the Treaty of Ghent that same month.

Hat Act
Another part of the British mercantilistic system, the Hat, Iron, and Wool Acts restricted and rechanneled infant colonial manufacturing.

hawks
"Hawks" were Americans who, during the Vietnam War, urged support for a policy of pursuing and winning the war. They saw American involvement as a moral obligation to resist aggression and stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff
In 1930, Congress enacted the Hawley-Smoot Tariff, which raised duties on most manufactured goods to prohibitive levels. Unable to earn American dollars in trade, Europeans could not make their war debt payments, further aggravating the depression of both the American and European economies.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel
New England's Puritan heritage and its continuing influence fascinated Romantic novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne. His books analyzed the themes of guilt, sin, and pride. He wrote "The Scarlet Letter."

Hay, John
Secretary of State John Hay issued the turn-of-the-century "Open Door" notes that set forth America's policy in Asia--free trade and the territorial integrity of China. He also negotiated a number of treaties that lead to the construction of the Panama Canal.

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) set aside the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between the United States and Great Britain and gave the United States the right to build and fortify an isthmian canal through Central America. The United States agreed to keep the canal open to ships of all nations.

Hayes, Rutherford B.
Ohio Governor Rutherford Hayes was the Republican nominee for president in 1876. He was elected when a special electoral commission gave several disputed electoral votes to him.

Haymarket riot
In 1886, a meeting was called to protest the killing of a worker during a strike held for an eight-hour workday. The protest at Haymarket Square in Chicago was ended by a mysterious bomb blast that killed seven policemen. It resulted in public condemnation of organized labor and the demise of the Knights of Labor.

hayseeds
"Hayseed" was the pejorative nickname middle-class urban dwellers attached to American farmers in the late nineteenth century. Its use signaled the declining status of the nation's farmers.

Haywood, William
"Big Bill" Haywood was an organizer of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), an openly anticapitalist labor organization. Although he was sometimes dramatic in his leadership, Haywood was unable to build a large membership.

Head Start
In 1964, Congress created the Head Start program designed to prepare young children for elementary school. It also improved the health of children by providing medical examinations and good meals. It was one of the most successful Great Society programs.

headright system
Adopted first in Virginia and later in Maryland, this system of land distribution during the early colonial era granted settlers 50 acres for themselves and another 50 for each "head" (or person) they brought with them to the colony. This system was often used in conjunction with indentured servitude to build large plantations and supply them with labor.

Hearst, William Randolph
Hearst copied Joseph Pulitzer's methods and made the "New York Journal" newspaper even more popular than Pulitzer's "New York World."

Heller, Joseph
American writer Joseph Heller is best know for "Catch-22" (1955), an indignant yet darkly comedic denunciation of the absurdity of war that was extremely popular with college students in the 1950s and 1960s.

Helsinki Accords
This agreement in 1975 among NATO and Warsaw Pact members recognized European national boundaries as set after World War II and included guarantees of human rights.

Hemingway, Ernest
Hemingway was the most talented of America's expatriate writers in the 1920s. His many books portrayed his sense of life's meaninglessness and the amorality of modern life. His simple, evocative style made him a legend in his own time.

Henry VIII
Henry VIII was the king of England who repudiated the Pope's authority and declared himself head of the (Protestant) Anglican church in 1533.

Henry, Patrick
Henry, a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, in May 1765 suggested that Parliament had no legal authority to tax the colonies.

Hepburn Act
The 1906 Hepburn Act put teeth in the regulatory power of the Interstate Commerce Commission. It gave the commission power to inspect railroad companies' records, set maximum rates, and outlaw free passes, which were often used to influence politicians.

Hessians
Hessians were German troops hired by the British in 1775 to help suppress rebellion in the colonies. Colonists took offense, and Britain's use of Hessians made reconciliation with the colonies seem out of the question.

Higher Education Act
This federal legislation in 1965 provided federal financial aid for college students.

higher law
During the debate over the Compromise of 1850, New York Senator William Seward argued against any concessions to the slave interests by claiming that a "higher law," God's law, superseded the Constitution's provision for the return of runaway slaves, and any countenance of the evils of slavery.

hippies
Hippies were young people in the 1960s who chose to drop out and alienate themselves from mainstream culture in America. They generally retreated to communes, drugs, and mystic religions--forming what was known as the "counterculture." They rejected materialism, political activism, and conventional authority and behavior.

Hiroshima
Hiroshima, Japan, a city of 344,000 persons, was the target of the first atomic bombing in history. On August 6, 1945, 78,000 Japanese were killed in Hiroshima and 100,000 more were injured. Over 96 percent of the city's buildings were destroyed.

Hiss, Alger
In 1948, "Time" editor and former communist Whittaker Chambers accused former State Department officer Alger Hiss of having been a communist in the 1930s. Hiss sued Chambers for libel, but was himself convicted of perjury. The Hiss case fed the fears of many Americans that a communist underground was operating in the United States and had agents within the government.

Holiness movement
This religious movement originating in the antebellum North and revived among Texas farmers in the 1880s stressed simplicity in lifestyle and appealed especially to the poor.

Holocaust
The Holocaust was the systematic murder of millions of European Jews and others deemed undesirable by Nazi Germany.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.
Jurist Holmes argued that current necessity rather than precedent should determine the rules by which people are governed; that experience, not logic, should be the basis of law. He became a Supreme Court justice where he developed the "rule of reason" for prosecution of antitrust cases.

Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was the loose confederation of German and Italian territories under the authority of an emperor that existed from the ninth or tenth century until 1806.

Home mission societies
These organizations founded by white Methodist Church women in the South during the 1870s promoted industrial education among the southern poor and helped working-class women become self-sufficient.

Home Owners Loan Corporation
This federal agency rescued individual homeowners from foreclosure by refinancing mortgage loans.

Homestead Act
In 1862, Congress passed the Homestead Act that gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm and improve the land within five years of the grant. It encouraged westward migration into the Great Plains after the Civil War.

Homestead strike
A company decision to crush the workers' union provoked a strike at Andrew Carnegie's Homestead steel plant in Pittsburgh in 1892. With ruthless use of force, strikebreakers, and public support behind them, company officials effectively broke the strike and destroyed the union.

Hoover, Herbert
Before he was elected president in 1928, Hoover had never been elected to any office. But he was a proven administrator and the intellectual leader of the New Era movement of government-business partnership and cooperation. The 1929 stock-market crash ruined his presidency.

Hoovervilles
"Hoovervilles" were the ramshackle communities built of paper boxes, rusty sheet metal, and other refuse by people who were left homeless in the depression. These people tended to blame President Hoover for the depression and honored him in this way. Hoovervilles cropped up in many cities in 1930 and 1931.

Hopkins, Harry
In 1935, President Roosevelt put his close friend and personal advisor Harry Hopkins in charge of the WPA. Hopkins had earlier administered the FERA and later would administer the Lend-Lease Act, and was chairman of the World War II War Production Board.

horizontal integration
Horizontal integration refers to the merger of competitors in the same industry.

House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
This Congressional committee (1938-1975) investigated suspected Nazi and Communist sympathizers.

House of Burgesses
The House of Burgesses was established in Virginia in 1619 as an advisory body to the colony's governors. It was the seed of the system of elected representative government in America.

House of Commons
The House of Commons was the lower house of the British Parliament, which included representatives elected by England's propertied class.

House of Lords
The House of Lords was the upper house of the British Parliament, where members of the aristocracy were represented.

House, Edward M.
House was the personal confidant, friend, and adviser to President Woodrow Wilson. He advised Wilson on U.S. foreign policy before and during World War I, and at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919.

household system
The household system of manufacturing predated the factory system. In it, artisans produced a great variety of goods to supply local needs. In larger scale operations, central shops supplied materials to houses and small shops on a piecework basis, then marketed the finished goods to the regional or national market.

Houston, Sam
Houston was the commander of Texan armies in the Texas Revolt. He became the first president of the Republic of Texas in 1836 and was later a Texas senator and governor.

How the Other Half Lives
In 1890, journalist Jacob Riis wrote "How the Other Half Lives" to expose the unhealthy conditions of tenement life in New York City.

Howe, William
General Howe took command of British troops in North America after the Battle of Bunker Hill. He captured New York and Philadelphia, but botched the plan to isolate the New England colonies in 1777.

Howells, William Dean
A leading late nineteenth-century literary realist and influential critic, Howells's works described both the genteel, middle-class world he knew and the whole range of metropolitan life. "Silas Lapham," his masterpiece, dealt with the ethical conflicts inherent in a competitive society.

Huckleberry Finn
"Huckleberry Finn" (1884) was Mark Twain's masterpiece. The novel reflected his own experience and feeling and reflected the realism of late nineteenth-century literature--life as it is.

Hudson River school
The romantic Hudson River school of early nineteenth-century artists specialized in grandiose pictures of wild landscapes.

Huerta, Victoriano
Huerta ruthlessly seized power in Mexico in 1913. President Wilson objected to Huerta's murderous methods and refused to extend diplomatic recognition to the Huerta government. Huerta abdicated in 1914.

Hughes, Charles Evans
Hughes, a progressive Republican, was that party's presidential nominee in 1916. Later, he was a secretary of state and chief justice of the Supreme Court.

Hull House
Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago was the most famous settlement house in America. It, like other settlement houses, provided social services and practical education to those they served.

human rights policy
President Carter asserted that his administration's foreign policy would place basic human rights--security, freedom from fear and hunger, etc.--before all other concerns. His administration was inconsistent in applying this standard.

Humphrey, Hubert
President Johnson's vice president, Hubert Humphrey, was the Democratic presidential candidate in 1968. He had a lengthy record of support for social welfare and civil-rights legislation, but his support for Johnson's war policies cost him some Democratic liberal votes and he narrowly lost the 1968 election to Richard Nixon.

Hundred Days
The Hundred Days designates the period between Franklin Roosevelt's inauguration as president (March 4, 1933) and the adjournment of Congress on June 16, 1933. During the period, Congress passed an immense body of legislation requested by Roosevelt to try to stimulate the depressed economy.

Hussein, Saddam
Saddam Hussein was the president of Iraq whose army invaded Kuwait in 1990 and in doing so sparked the Persian Gulf War. President Bush marshaled the United Nations' support for a military force, mostly American, to compel Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait.

Hutchinson, Anne
Hutchinson was a Massachusetts Bay Puritan who was banished for criticizing the colony's ministers and magistrates, and for her heresy of antinomianism.


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