> Glossary: J

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Jackson, Jesse
Jackson, a black civil-rights activist, ran for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988. He campaigned to reduce military spending and advance education and social services.

Jackson, Stonewall
General Thomas Jackson was one of the Confederacy's key military commanders and an expert on cavalry maneuvers. He was killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863) when he was accidentally shot by one of his own soldiers.

Jacksonian Democracy
The concept of Jacksonian Democracy glorified the equality of all adult white males--the common man. It disliked anything that smacked of special privilege. It rejected the elitist view that only the proven "best" men should be chosen to manage public affairs.

Jacksonian Democrats
Andrew Jackson's Democratic party generally championed the principles of equal opportunity, absolute political freedom (for white males), glorification of the common man, and limited government.

James, Henry
James was a preeminent literary realist who detested romantic novels. In his own works, he pursued themes of cultural conflict and the cruel impoliteness of a pretentious upper class. He skillfully brought psychological penetration to the personalities of his characters.

James, William
James was the founder of the discipline of psychology. He was the most influential philosopher of his time. Contrary to the prevailing environmentalism, James held an axiomatic belief in free will. He was America's leading proponent of pragmatism.

Japanese Association of America
The Japanese Association of America was a social service organization for Japanese immigrants that stressed assimilation.

Jay's Treaty
John Jay negotiated a treaty with Britain in 1794 in which the British agreed to evacuate posts in the American northwest and settle some maritime disputes. Jay agreed to accept Britain's definition of America's neutral rights. The terms of the treaty provoked a storm of protest, but it was ratified in 1795.

Jay, John
Jay was Chief Justice, a coauthor of the Federalist Papers, and negotiated the controversial Jay Treaty with England.

Jazz Age
The 1920s were known as the Jazz Age, so called for the popular music of the day as a symbol of the many changes taking place in the mass culture.

Jazz Singer, The
"The Jazz Singer," (1927), starring Al Jolson, was the first talking movie.

Jefferson, Thomas
Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, helped organize the Republican party in the 1790s, and became the third president of the United States (1801-1809).

Jeffersonian Republicans
This party, headed by Thomas Jefferson, formed in opposition to the financial and diplomatic policies of the Federalist party. They favored limiting the powers of the national government and placing the interests of farmers and planters over those of financial and commercial groups, and supported the cause of the French Revolution.

Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws were segregation laws that became widespread in the South during the 1890s; they were named for a minstrel show character portrayed satirically by white actors in blackface.

Job Corps
One of President Johnson's War on Poverty initiatives led to the creation of the Job Corps in 1964. It was a community-action program to help finance local job training for the poor. It was almost a total failure.

John Brown's Raid
John Brown's Raid was the ill-fated attempt of the eponymous New England abolitionist to free Virginia's slaves with a raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859.

Johns Hopkins
Under the presidency of Daniel Coit Gilman, Johns Hopkins University stressed meticulous research and freedom of inquiry. It specialized in graduate education and attracted scholars and faculty from throughout America and Europe.

Johnson, Andrew
Democratic Senator Andrew Johnson from Tennessee was Lincoln's vice-presidential running mate in 1864 on the National Union party ticket. He succeeded to the presidency when Lincoln was assassinated in 1865. His Reconstruction policies infuriated Radical Republicans in Congress, and he was impeached and nearly removed from office in 1867. He returned to the Senate in 1875.

Johnson, Lyndon B.
Texas Senator Lyndon B. Johnson was a master of the legislative process. He was elected vice president in 1960 and became president when John F. Kennedy was assassinated in 1963. He was elected president in 1964. His Great Society and civil-rights programs were overshadowed by his decisions that mired the United States in the Vietnam War.

Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War
Although created by the Republican-dominated Congress in December 1861 to examine and monitor Civil War military policy, the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War ultimately devoted itself more to harassing Democratic officers and promoting the political agenda of Radical Republican congressmen.

joint resolution
A joint resolution of Congress requires a simple majority vote in each house to pass. After falling short of the two-thirds majority needed in the Senate to ratify a treaty to annex Texas in 1844, Texas was annexed by a joint resolution in 1845.

joint-stock company
English merchants invested in companies similar to modern corporations. These joint-stock companies enabled investors to pool capital for commercial activity and colony planting, including the founding of the Virginia, Plymouth, and Massachusetts Bay colonies.

Jones, Bobby
Bobby Jones ruled the world of golf in the 1920s. In 1930 he won the amateur and open championships of both the United States and Great Britain.

Jones, Samuel M.
"Golden Rule" Jones was the progressive reform mayor of Toledo, Ohio at the turn of the twentieth century. He, like other reform mayors, launched a massive assault on dishonesty and inefficiency in urban government.

A journeyman is a person who has completed an apprenticeship in a trade or craft and is now a qualified worker in another person's employ.

judicial review
Although the Constitution did not specifically authorize the courts to declare laws void when they conflicted with the Constitution, courts soon exercised this power of judicial review. The case of "Marbury v. Madison" (1803) established the Supreme Court's and other federal courts' authority of judicial review of the acts of Congress.

Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 giving the Supreme Court the authority to issue a writ of mandamus was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803). It was the first federal law to fall victim to judicial review.

Judiciary Act of 1801
The lame-duck Federalist congress created several new federal courts in the Judiciary Act of 1801. Just before leaving office, President Adams appointed Federalist "midnight justices" to these courts. The new Republican congress repealed the act and many appointments were never delivered.

Jungle, The
Socialist journalist Upton Sinclair's novel "The Jungle" was a devastating exposé of Chicago's slaughterhouses. Its publication and popularity helped President Roosevelt pressure Congress into enacting meat-inspection and pure-food and drug legislation.

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