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Taft-Hartley Act
The anti-union Taft-Hartley Act (1947) outlawed the closed shop and secondary boycotts. It also authorized the president to seek injunctions to prevent strikes that posed a threat to national security.

talented tenth
African-American leader William E. B. Du Bois believed that an elite "talented tenth" of the nation's blacks--those with aspiration, thrift, ability, and character--would save the race from the discrimination and prejudice of whites.

Tallmadge Amendment
When Missouri applied for statehood in 1819, Pennsylvania Congressman James Tallmadge introduced an amendment calling for the gradual abolition of slavery in Missouri. It failed to pass Congress, but it generated an angry debate between northern and southern leaders that raged for months.

Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall was New York City's Democratic party machine, dating from well before the Civil War. Under the leadership of corrupt political manipulators like "Boss" Tweed and Richard Croker, it evolved into a powerful political machine after 1860 and used patronage and bribes to control the city administration for decades.

Tampico incident
In April 1914, some U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico. President Wilson used the incident to send U.S. troops into northern Mexico. His real intent was to unseat the Huerta government there. After the Niagara Falls Conference, Huerta abdicated and the confrontation ended.

Taney, Roger
Taney was Chief Justice of the United States from 1836 to 1864. His court made significant rulings that encouraged economic development, enforced the Fugitive Slave Law, and opened the territories to slavery. He opposed Lincoln's suspension of the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil War.

Taos Revolt
This uprising of Pueblo Indians in New Mexico broke out in January 1847 over the imposition of American rule during the Mexican War; the revolt was crushed within a few weeks.

Tariff Act of 1798
This law placed a duty of 5 percent on most imported goods, and was designed primarily to generate revenue and not to protect American goods from foreign competition.

Tariff of 1816
In 1816, Congress passed the nation's first protective tariff. It was designed to protect textile factories, because the British were dumping cloth in the United States at bargain prices in their attempt to regain markets they had lost during the War of 1812.

Tariff of Abominations
In 1828, Congress revised the protective tariff law by generally raising tariff rates. Anti-tariff southerners were appalled by this Tariff of Abominations. Vice-President John C. Calhoun was provoked to write the "South Carolina Exposition and Protest"--a defense of the doctrine of nullification.

Taylor, Zachary
Taylor was the commander of American armies in northern Mexico during the Mexican War. In 1848 he was elected president as a Whig candidate. He died in office in 1850.

Tea Act of 1773
This act of Parliament permitted the East India Company to sell tea through agents in America without paying the duty customarily collected in Britain, thus reducing the retail price. Americans, who saw the act as an attempt to induce them to pay the Townshend duty still imposed in the colonies, resisted this act through the Boston Tea Party and other measures.

Teapot Dome
Teapot Dome was a government oil reserve in Wyoming under the navy's control. It became involved in a scandal when President Harding's secretary of the interior, Albert Fall, leased the reserves to private oil companies in return for a bribe.

Tecumseh
The Shawnee chief Tecumseh organized an Indian confederacy to try to defend Indian land and culture in the Ohio country. In 1811 his confederacy was shattered at the Battle of Tippecanoe. Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames during the War of 1812.

tejano
A person of Spanish or Mexican descent born in Texas.

Teller Amendment
In the Teller Amendment, the United States pledged that it did not intend to annex Cuba and that it would recognize Cuban independence from Spain after the Spanish-American War.

temperance
Temperance, moderation in the use of alcoholic beverages, attracted many advocates in the early nineteenth century. They waged a national crusade against drunkenness. Advocates used both moral appeals and the coercive power of law to successfully reduce consumption of intoxicating beverages.

ten percent plan
This plan devised by President Lincoln in 1863 promised a quick and moderate method for readmitting the seceding states to the Union; it required 10 percent of a state's prewar voters to swear allegiance to the Union and a new state constitution that banned slavery. Many congressional Republicans considered this standard too thin to support a general reconstruction of the Union and responded with the Wade-Davis Bill.

tenement
Tenements are four- to six-story residential dwellings, once common in New York and certain other cities, built on a tiny lot without regard to providing ventilation or light.

Tenure of Office Act
The 1867 Tenure of Office Act prohibited the president from removing any official who had been appointed with the consent of the Senate without obtaining Senate approval. President Johnson challenged the act in 1868 when he dismissed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. For this, the House of Representatives impeached Johnson.

termination
Termination was the federal policy of withdrawing official recognition from American Indian tribes and dividing tribal assets among the tribe's members.

Tet offensive
In February 1968, the North Vietnamese and Vietcong (communist guerrillas) in South Vietnam launched a major offensive, hoping to provoke widespread rebellion in the country. The effort failed, but the psychological impact on South Vietnam and the United States made it a great victory for the Vietcong and North Vietnam. The United States thereafter reversed its policy of escalation and began to Vietnamize the war.

Teutonic
The now discredited theory of the Teutonic origins of democracy held that the roots of democracy were to be found in the customs of the ancient Germanic tribes of northern Europe (Teutons). It provided ammunition for those who favored restricting the "new" immigration and for those who argued that blacks were inferior beings.

Third International
This international organization of Communist parties was created in 1919 under Bolshevik control.

Third world
This is a term applied to nations that were aligned with neither the Communist bloc (the "second world") nor the West (the "first world").

Thirteenth Amendment
The Thirteenth Amendment (1865) freed the slaves. Ironically, by negating the Three-fifths Clause in the Constitution, it had the effect of increasing the representation of the southern states in Congress. Congressional Republicans balked at this.

Thomas Amendment
During the Missouri Crisis (1819-1821), Illinois Senator Jesse Thomas, hoping to prevent further conflict, got Congress to adopt his proposal to ban slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of 36° 30' (excluding Missouri).

Thoreau, Henry David
Thoreau, like Emerson, was a leading literary romantic and Transcendentalist in the early nineteenth century. He admired raw nature and the simple life, and he valued the freedom of the self-reliant individual. He wrote "Walden" and "Civil Disobedience."

Thorpe, Jim
Thorpe, a Sac and Fox Indian, won several events in the 1912 Olympic Games, was a football all-American, and played professional baseball. He was perhaps the United States's greatest all-around athlete of the twentieth century.

Three-fifths Compromise
The Founding Fathers agreed that three-fifths of all slaves should be counted for purposes of both deciding a state's obligation for a direct federal tax, and for determining its population for representation in the House of Representatives.

Thurmond, Strom
South Carolinian J. Strom Thurmond was the presidential candidate of the States' Rights (Dixicrat) party in 1948. Dixicrats were conservative southern Democrats who objected to President Truman's strong push for civil-rights legislation.

tight-money policy
A tight-money policy calls for raising interest rates to make money harder to borrow, thus reducing the amount of money in circulation. It is used by the Federal Reserve Board to combat inflation.

Tilden, Samuel
New York's Governor Tilden was the Democratic party's nominee for president in 1876. He lost the election by a single electoral vote when an electoral commission gave twenty disputed votes to Rutherford B. Hayes.

time zones
Owners of the transcontinental railroads to help standardize their operations devised America's four time zones (Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific) in 1883.

Toleration Act
The Toleration Act was passed in Maryland in 1649. It granted freedom of religion to all professing Christians. It was designed to protect the Catholic minority who controlled the government from the Protestant majority of the population.

Tonnage Act of 1789
This act established a duty levied on the tonnage of incoming ships to U.S. ports; tax was higher on foreign-owned ships to favor American shippers.

Tordesillas, Treaty of
This treaty negotiated by the pope in 1494 resolved the territorial claims of Spain and Portugal. It drew a north-south line approximately 1,100 miles west of the Cape Verde Islands, granting all lands west of the line to Spain and all lands east of the line to Portugal. This limited Portugal's New World empire to Brazil but confirmed its claims in Africa and Asia.

Tories
Tories (sometimes called Loyalists) hesitated to take up arms against England. They may have been as much as one-third of the colonists in 1776. Many were royal appointees, Anglican clergymen, or Atlantic merchants. They were poorly organized and of limited help to British armies, but the Patriots persecuted them. The term derived from late-seventeenth-century English politics when the Tory party supported the Duke of York's succession to the throne as James II. Later the Tory party favored the Church of England and the crown over dissenting denominations and Parliament.

town meeting
The town meeting was the usual form of local government in colonial New England. Town businesses was decided at a semiannual meeting where most male adults could select a representative to the assembly and decide issues related to land, taxes, the minister's salary, and provisions for the poor.

Townsend, Francis
Dr. Townsend was the author of the old-age revolving pension plan, which called for a guaranteed monthly income for the unemployed elderly on the condition they spend the total income within thirty days to stimulate the economy. New Dealers rejected this plan in favor of the Social Security Act.

Townshend, Charles
Townshend was the English Chancellor of the Exchequer who persuaded Parliament to impose a new series of trade taxes on the American colonies in 1767, the Townshend duties. He held a very low opinion of the colonists.

Townshend Duty Act
This act of Parliament, passed in 1767, imposed duties on colonial tea, lead, paint, paper, and glass. Designed to take advantage of the supposed American distinction between internal and external taxes, the Townshend duties were to help support government in America. The act prompted a successful colonial nonimportation movement.

Trail of Tears
The Trail of Tears defined the route of the tragic removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to Indian Territory under severe conditions in 1838.

Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism was the fullest expression of early nineteenth-century romanticism. It was a mystical, intuitive way of looking at life that subordinated facts to feelings. Transcendentalists argued that humans could transcend reason and intellectual capacities by having faith in themselves and in the fundamental benevolence of the universe. They were complete individualists.

Transcontinental Treaty
In the Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty) ratified in 1821, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams gained a favorable western boundary of the Louisiana Territory to the Pacific. Also, the United States purchased Florida, but temporarily surrendered its claim to Spanish Texas.

Treaty of Ghent
The Treaty of Ghent, Belgium, in 1814 ended the War of 1812. Britain and the United States agreed to end the state of hostilities. Neither side made any major concessions. With Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, the war issues had simply evaporated.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War in 1848. Mexico was forced to relinguish the modern state of California, as well as all land north of the Rio Grande and Gila Rivers. In return, the United States agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and assume the $3.25 million claims of American citizens against Mexico.

Treaty of Paris (1765)
The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War (Great War for the Empire). France abandoned nearly all its territorial claims in North America.

Treaty of Paris (1783)
In the Treaty of Paris of 1783, England recognized the independence of the thirteen rebellious colonies in North America, thus formally ending the War of the American Revolution. England also relinquished land claims east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes.

Treaty of Portsmouth
In the 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth (New Hampshire), President Theodore Roosevelt mediated the settlement of the Russo-Japanese War. The Japanese were embittered by the settlement, which gave them a smaller amount of territory and financial indemnity than they expected.

Treaty of San Lorenzo
In the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as Pinckney's Treaty), Spain granted the United States free navigation of the Mississippi River and the right of deposit at New Orleans. It also settled the boundary dispute between Spanish Florida and the United States on terms favorable to the United States.

Treaty of Tordesillas
This treaty was negotiated between Spain and Portugal in 1494. Portugal agreed to concentrate its activities in Africa and the East, leaving New World exploration and settlement (except for Brazil) to Spain.

Treaty of Washington
In the 1871 Treaty of Washington, the United States and Britain decided to arbitrate the "Alabama" claims dispute dating from the Civil War. The "Alabama" was a British-built Confederate naval cruiser that sank tons of Union shipping. The British agreed to pay reparations.

Trent affair
In 1861, a U.S. naval vessel intercepted a British ship, the "Trent," and removed two Confederate envoys. This was a clear violation of international law. The British objected and threatened war, but the crisis passed when Lincoln released the two Confederates.

Triangle Shirtwaist factory
The tragic death of 150 women employees at New York's Triangle Shirtwaist factory in 1911, caused by locked doors and the absence of fire escapes, led to the passage of stricter building codes and factory-inspection laws to protect workers.

triangular trade
The misnamed triangular trade was a series of indirect routes used to conduct trade between the colonies and England. The trade ultimately carried raw materials to England and manufactured goods to the colonies.

Tripartite Pact
In this alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan signed in September 1941, each nation agreed to help the others in the event of an attack by the United States.

Trist, Nicholas P.
Trist, chief clerk in the State Department, was sent to negotiate a peace treaty with a defeated Mexico in 1847. Before he could open negotiations he was summoned to return, but he ignored the order and stayed to negotiate the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Trotter, William Monroe
Like his Harvard classmate W. E. B. Du Bois, Trotter was a caustic critic of Booker T. Washington's call for black accommodation to white prejudice. He led a delegation of African Americans to Washington, D.C., to protest the government's segregation policy.

Truman Doctrine
In 1947, President Truman asked Congress to appropriate money for aid to the Greek and Turkish governments then under threat by communists rebels. Arguing for the appropriations, Truman asserted his doctrine that the U.S. was committed to support free people resisting subjugation by communist attack or rebellion. The Truman Doctrine implemented the containment doctrine.

Truman, Harry S
Missouri Senator Truman was elected vice president in 1944. He succeeded to the presidency when Roosevelt died in 1945 and was involved in many key decisions ending World War II and in the early Cold War. It was his decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan. He was elected president again in 1948 and decided to send troops to Korea in 1950.

trust
A trust, sometimes inaccurately made synonymous with a monopoly, was a business management device designed to centralize and make more efficient the management of diverse and far-flung business operations. John D. Rockefeller organized the first trust, the Standard Oil Trust.

trustbuster
President Theodore Roosevelt became known as a trustbuster for his crusades against American Tobacco and Northern Securities, but this was an exaggeration. He saw large business concentrations in need of government regulation, not destruction.

Tse-tung, Mao
Mao was the leader of the communist movement in China in the 1940s. His Red Army overthrew the nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek in 1949 and established the People's Republic of China.

Turner, Frederick Jackson
Turner, one of the first professional historians, proposed in his "frontier thesis" that the development of American individualism and democracy was not imported from Europe, but was born and nurtured in the nation's continuous frontier experience.

Turner, Nat
In 1831, Nat Turner, a Virginia slave, led a brief, but bloody slave revolt against local whites. When his revolt failed, Turner was captured, tried, and executed. The revolt terrified southern whites.

turnpike
Turnpikes, paved roadways, were built as private business ventures in the early nineteenth century. Promoters charged tolls for the use of the pikes to recover their costs of construction and make a profit. Some were built by states, and the federal government financed the National Road. Turnpikes were one kind of internal improvement.

Tuskegee Institute
In 1881 Booker T. Washington founded this educational institution in rural Alabama to train blacks in agricultural and industrial skills.

TVA
The 1933 Tennessee Valley Authority Act authorized the building of federally owned dams and power plants on the Tennessee River, and the sale of fertilizer and electricity to individuals and local communities. In addition, its programs for flood control, soil conservation, and reforestation helped raise the standard of living of millions of people in the Tennessee River Valley.

TVA yardstick
The Tennessee Valley Authority, among other things, was designed to provide a yardstick or a standard of measurement, whereby the efficiency--and thus the rates--of private power companies could be tested for fairness.

Twain, Mark
Author Mark Twain (born Samuel Clemens) wrote several books that caught the spirit of the Gilded Age. His works combined real depth with a comic genius that exposed the pretentiousness and meanness of human beings. They were very popular and have lasting appeal.

Tweed, William Marcy
William Marcy "Boss" Tweed was the leader of New York's Tammany Hall and the most notorious of all late nineteenth-century corrupt politicians. He extracted millions from graft-ridden city contracts. He was lampooned by cartoonist Thomas Nast, and eventually jailed.

Twelfth Amendment
The Twelfth Amendment, ratified in 1804, provided for separate balloting in the Electoral College for president and vice- president.

Twenty-one Demands
In 1915, Japan presented China with twenty-one demands that would have given Japan special privileges and challenged the United States's Open Door policy in China. President Wilson protested and Japan modified its demands.

Tyler, John
When President Harrison died in 1841, Tyler became the first vice-president to succeed to the presidency. He never got along well with other leaders in the Whig party who tried get him to endorse Clay's American System. He was not renominated in 1844.


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