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Vallandigham, Clement
The most notorious domestic foe of Lincoln's war policies in the Civil War was Ohio Congressman Clement Vallandigham, a Peace Democrat. He urged that the war be ended by negotiation. He was temporarily jailed, banned to the Confederacy, went to Canada, and returned to campaign against Lincoln in 1864.

Valley Forge
General George Washington's continental troops were quartered from December 1777 to June 1778 in this area of Pennsylvania approximately 20 miles northwest of Philadelphia, where while British forces occupied Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War. Approximately 2,500 men, about a quarter of those encamped there, died of hardship and disease.

Vance, Cyrus
Vance was secretary of state in the Carter administration. He was a strong supporter of détente between the United States and the Soviet Union. In 1979 he resigned in protest against the handling of the hostage crisis in Iran.

vast wasteland
In the 1960s, FCC commissioner Newton Minow labeled American television a "vast wasteland" devoted to uninspired programming and crass commercials.

Veblen, Thorstein
Veblen, a late nineteenth-century economist, accused big business and government of corrupting higher education by stressing practical values over humanistic, and using universities for business and political purposes.

Versailles, Treaty of
This treaty ended World War I and created the League of Nations.

vertical integration
The term vertical integration refers to the consolidation of numerous production functions, from the extraction of the raw materials to the distribution and marketing of the finished products, under the direction of one firm.

Vesey, Denmark
Vesey was a South Carolina free black who, in 1822, organized a slave revolt. The plan was exposed and the revolt never occurred, but its exposure frightened southern whites.

vice-admiralty courts
Vice-admiralty courts were royal courts established in the colonies to handle maritime cases and enforce the Acts of Trade. The enlarged role of these bodies, which operated without juries, was considered a grievance.

Vicksburg
Vicksburg was a key Mississippi River port and rail junction that fell in July 1863 to a brilliant Union campaign by Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Army of Tennessee, during the Civil War.

Viet Cong
Viet Cong were the Communist rebels in South Vietnam who fought the pro-American government established in South Vietnam in 1954.

Vietnamization
"Vietnamization" was the war policy adopted by presidents Johnson and Nixon after the Tet offensive in 1968. It was an effort to build up South Vietnamese forces so that American troops could be withdrawn from Vietnam.

Villa, Pancho
Villa, a Mexican "bandit" who opposed the Carranza government, raided Columbus, New Mexico, in 1916. This provoked U.S. military intervention in Mexico. The army chased Villa, but was withdrawn before he could be found.

Vincennes, Treaty of
In this 1804 treaty Americans claimed that Indian leaders ceded most of southern Indiana to the United States.

Virginia Company
The Virginia Company was one of two joint-stock companies chartered in 1606 to establish English colonies in America. Also known as the London Company, it organized the founding of the Virginia Colony. The company went bankrupt in 1624, and a year later Virginia became a royal colony.

Virginia Plan
James Madison offered the Constitutional Convention the Virginia plan calling for proportional representation in Congress. James Paterson's New Jersey plan, hoping to protect the less populous states, called for equal representation in Congress for each state. The controversy was resolved in the Great Compromise.

virtual representation
Parliament argued that colonists were virtually represented in Parliament because every member of Parliament stood for the interests of the empire. Colonists insisted that since they did not actually elect voting members of Parliament to represent their interests, Parliament did not represent them.

VISTA
Volunteers in Service to America, VISTA was the "domestic Peace Corps" of the 1960s that gave individuals an opportunity to work on behalf of low-income communities in the United States.

Volcker, Paul
Volcker was appointed chairman of the Federal Reserve Board in 1978. He believed in the conservative monetarist solution to inflation that called for a tight-money policy. This meant high interest rates.

Volstead Act
This 1920 law defined the liquor forbidden under the Eighteenth Amendment and gave enforcement responsibilities to the Prohibition Bureau of the Department of the Treasury.

Voting Rights Act
This 1965 legislation overturned a variety of practices by which states systematically denied voter registration to minorities.


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