The Allies were Britain, France, Russia, Italy and other belligerent nations fighting against the Central Powers in World War I, but not including the United States.
America First Committee
The America First Committee, led by aviation hero Charles Lindbergh, was an isolationist organization in the 1930s that opposed any U.S. intervention in world affairs that might lead the United States into war. Officially the Committee to Defend America First, the organization promoted the policy of building and defending "Fortress America."
American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society
The American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society was an antislavery organization formed in 1840 when a group of moderate abolitionists split off from the American Anti-Slavery Society in protest of the radicalism of William Lloyd Garrison and his support of women's rights.
American Anti-Slavery Society
Founded in 1833, the American Anti-Slavery Society was the first national organization of abolitionists.
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
The ACLU was formed in 1920 to guard the constitutional rights of Americans against government infringement.
American Colonization Society
The American Colonization Society was founded in 1817. It purchased land in Africa (Liberia) with the intention of solving the "Negro problem" by transporting freed slaves there. Society backers were convinced that both blacks and whites would benefit from racial separation. Few blacks wished to migrate to Africa and the society accomplished little.
American Equal Rights Association
This association was formed by women's rights activists in 1866 to advocate universal suffrage at the state level after the Fourteenth Amendment failed to provide federal guarantees for women's voting rights.
American Expeditionary Force
The first members of the AEF, American troops who served in Europe in World War I, arrived in Paris in July 1917. They were under the command of General John J. Pershing, who insisted that they fight as independent units and not be integrated into British and French (Allied) forces.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
This union formed in 1886 organized skilled workers along craft lines and emphasized a few workplace issues rather than a broad social program.
American Female Moral Reform Society
This organization founded in 1839 by female reformers established homes of refuge for prostitutes amd petitioned for state laws that would criminalize adultery and the seduction of women.
American Indian Movement
Members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) demanded the return of lands taken illegally from their ancestors. They launched a concerted effort to revive tribal cultures and used confrontations with the federal government to publicize their case for Indian rights. Some sought Indian nationalism in the form of establishing Indian states within states.
American Liberty League
This business group organized to sway popular opinion against the New Deal
American Protective Association
American nativists, who disliked Catholics and minority groups, organized the American Protective Association in 1887. The skilled workers and small businessmen who formed the association tried to limit immigration to America and block the upward mobility of newly arrived "new" immigrants, in favor of saving jobs for Protestant workers.
American Protective League
The American Protective League was one of the leading vigilante organizations that suppressed dissent while promoting reactionary causes during World War I.
American Railway Union (ARU)
Led by Eugene V. Debs, this union supported the Pullman strike.
American Revenue Act
Commonly known as the Sugar Act, this law passed in 1764 raised revenue in the American colonies by lowering the duty from 6 pence to 3 pence per gallon on foreign molasses imported into the colonies and increased the restrictions on colonial commcerce.
Intended to protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition, the American System was the brainchild of Kentucky Congressman Henry Clay. It involved a political trade-off: In return for eastern support for federal aid to railroad and canal construction, the West would back protective tariffs. This arrangement would stimulate manufacturing and a demand for raw materials, and increase the market for manufactured goods.
American system of manufacturing
The American system of manufacturing was a technique of production pioneered in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century that relied on precision manufacturing with the use of interchangeable parts.
American Temperance Union
The founding of the American Temperance Union in 1826 by evangelical Protestants signaled the start of a national crusade against drunkenness. Using a variety of techniques, the union set out to persuade people not to drink intoxicating beverages and was successful in sharply lowering per capita consumption of alcohol.
American with Disabilities Act (ADA)
The ADA banned discrimination against physically handicapped persons in employment, transportation, and public accommodations.
Amnesty is a general pardon for a past offense. In 1865, President Johnson issued an amnesty proclamation for most former Confederates who would take a general loyalty oath to the United States.
Anarchists advocate the overthrow of organized government because they believe it interferes with individual liberty. They sometimes see cooperatives and voluntary association of individuals and groups as the best way to organize society. Anarchists called the protest meeting at Haymarket Square in Chicago in 1886.
Andros was the governor of the Dominion of New England. When appointed by James II in 1686, he set about to abolish the Massachusetts assembly, enforce religious toleration, and collect the king's quitrents. He was deposed in the wake of the Glorious Revolution in England in 1688.
The Anglican church became the official Church of England during the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). During Elizabeth's reign, England assumed the leadership of the Protestant world.
This series of agreements reached in the British-American Convention of 1818 fixed the western boundary between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel, allowed for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country, and restored to Americans fishing rights off Newfoundland.
An Anglo-Saxon is a person whose native language or origin is English. The term was generally used in the late nineteenth century to identify "native" Americans and distinguish them from nonwhite peoples and from "new" immigrants.
Santa Anna was the president of Mexico and general of the Mexican army that invaded Texas during the Texas Revolt in 1835-1836. He was defeated and captured at the Battle of San Jacinto where Texans won their independence.
The Annapolis Convention was a conference of state delegates at Annapolis, Maryland, that issued a call in September 1786 for a convention to meet at Philadelphia in May 1787 to consider fundamental changes to the Articles of Confederation.
Antebellum translates from Latin as "before the war," and is a term commonly used by historians to refer to the three decades preceding the Civil War, 1830-1860.
Anthony, Susan B.
Anthony saw the need for thorough organization if the women's rights movement was to become effective in a male-dominated society. She campaigned for women's right to vote, own property, attend college, and enter the professions.
After the Spanish-American War (1898), American anti-imperialists objected to the annexation of the Philippines, the ratification of the Treat of Paris, and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other interests motivated them, but they failed to make their case: the Philippines were annexed in 1900.
A third party formed in 1827, the Anti-Masons stood in opposition to the presumed power and influence of the Masonic order.
Anti-Semitism is opposition to, hatred of, or agitation against Jews. Distaste for immigrants from eastern Europe, many of whom were Jewish, expanded into a more general anti-Semitism in the United States in the 1920s.
Antifederalists opposed ratification of the Constitution; they were states' rightists and were concerned that the Constitution contained no Bill of Rights. Federalists advocated ratification of the Constitution; they were centralizing nationalists.
Antinomianism was the view--heretical to Puritans--that those possessing saving grace were exempt from the rules of good behavior and from the laws of the community. Antinomians believed that salvation came through faith alone and that individuals who are saved need only obey the spirit within them rather than the moral law.
Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World
In 1829, David Walker, a Boston free black, published this pamphlet, which called for slaves to rise up in rebellion.
On April 9, 1865, Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrended to Union general Ulysses S. Grant in this town in south-central Virginia.
Apprentices were young men who aspired to become craftsmen and artisans. After five to seven years of training with a master craftsman, to whom the young man was bound by a legal agreement for the period of the apprenticeship, the apprentice became a journeyman and began working for wages. With skill and luck he eventually opened a shop of his own as an independent artisan.
The Archaic period was roughly between 8000 and 1500 B.C., during which time Native Americans adapted to a changed continental climate, developed larger communities, and, in several regions, adopted agriculture.
An archipelago is a group of islands. The Philippines, for example, form an archipelago.
Arminianism was the view--heretical to Puritans--that good works and faith in God could win a person admittance to Heaven (salvation). Arminianism was a doctrine of works.
General Arnold had been an effective commander of Patriot troops early in the Revolutionary War, but he became disaffected by what he considered unjust criticism of his generalship, and he defected to the British in 1780.
Arthur, Chester A.
Arthur, Garfield's vice-president and a former Collector of the New York Customs House, became president when Garfield was assassinated in 1881. Like presidents Hayes and Garfield, Arthur was not a strong presidential leader.
Article 10 of the League Covenant
Article 10 of the League of Nations Covenant in the Treaty of Versailles bound signatories to protect the political independence and territorial integrity of all member nations. Of all the treaty conditions, it provoked the most opposition to ratification in the U.S. Senate.
Articles of Confederation
The Articles (ratified in 1781) were the United States's first constitution. They sharply limited central authority by denying the national government any coercive power including the power to tax and to regulate trade. The articles set up the loose confederation of states that comprised the first national government from 1781 to 1788.
Artisans were self-employed craftsmen and small businessmen engaged in the production of a marketable good or service--tailor, shoemaker, printer, baker, etc.
The early-twentieth-century "ashcan" school of artists supported progressive political and social reform. They turned to city streets, the slums, and the working class for subject matter.
The assembly line is a mass-production process in manufacturing that simplifies the production process by moving the product along a conveyor, with each worker repeating the same limited task on each product as it comes by. The assembly line is closely identified with Henry Ford's revolutionizing of the automobile industry.
During the decisive Atlanta Campaign in 1864, Union general William T. Sherman maneuvered past Confederate general Joseph E. Johnson from northwestern Georgia toward Atlanta until President Davis replaced Johnson with General John B. Hood, who promptly engaged Sherman and lost this vital rail junction to the Union.
The Atlanta Compromise derived from a speech given by black leader Booker T. Washington in 1895. He urged blacks to concentrate on learning useful skills. He viewed black self-help and self-improvement, not agitation over segregation, disfranchisement, and racial discrimination, as the surest way to social and economic advancement for blacks.
At a meeting in August 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill developed the Atlantic Charter, a statement of common principles and war aims.
Attlee, leader of the Labour Party in Britain, replaced Winston Churchill as prime minister during the Potsdam Conference. A NAME="AAA">
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)